Uninterruptible Power Supply – Electricity Generation & Distribution

To fully understand and appreciate iBeLink Miners the importance of uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), it is crucial to first understand how electricity is generated and distributed in whatever country around the world you happen to be. In many Westernised societies it is tightly controlled, regulated and fairly reliable but in other areas it is not and power protection .

At the final point of consumption, whether business or residential, needs to bare this in mind. It may be that what’s needed is some form of micro-generation as well as uninterruptible power supply.These substations are connected to even smaller substations that reduce the voltage even further to typically 33kV and 11kV (UK). These are found either within or close to the point of delivery.

Electricity can be derived from a number of sources these days and the call for renewable technology in response to environmental pressures means the list is getting longer. Coal, gas-fired or nuclear generation stations have been the primary methods so far but wind, wave or solar power are beginning to make their mark.

The phenomenon that generates electricity is termed Electro-magnetic Induction. Its output is an alternating current (ac) waveform. The process by which this happens utilises magnets on a shaft which rotate near to windings (usually three) into which electric current is induced; referred to as Electro-motive Force. The process is the same in each case; the only difference between each of the energy generation types is the fuel it uses to make the shaft spin.

The windings within a generator are separated by 120 degrees of rotation, which creates a three-phase waveform comprising of P1 (phase 1), P2 (phase 2) and P3 (phase 3) components.The measurement of kV, at which electricity is generated, varies around the world from country to country, region to region.

In the UK, for example, it is typically 25kV, which is stepped up to 275/400kV before being distributed as a three-phase, 50Hz supply. It needs to be distributed at a high voltage to overcome resistance (that might be in the network) or transmission losses. As it moves through the network, however, to the point of use, the voltage is reduced. On the outskirts of major towns and cities, substations lower the voltage. In the UK this would be to 132kV.

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